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ch12_The Mongols- Film Activity
Video Segment #2: Pax Mongolica
5. Identify one distinct contribution of the Pax Mongolica in the following areas...
The Pax Mongolica contributed to travel because it made traveling safer. There were stations set up on opened routes that provided food and shelter for travelers. Also, the Silk Road was patrolled and guarded by Mongolian soldiers. The Pax Mongolica also contributed to communication. . During the Pax Mongolica, Asia was opened to Europeans and foreigners because the Mongolians did not isolated themselves like the Chinese. They also contributed to communication because of post stations and imperial messengers. Imperial messengers could travel great distances because they could order travelers to give them their horses when theirs were dead. Urgent messages could be receive in a few days.
Minor spelling/ grammar edits by Mr.V
The Pax Mongolica contributed to commerce because they made it safer to travel. Merchants were able to travel freely from east to west without fearing of attacsk, as a result, trade and commerce improved.
The use of paper money vs. specie was encouraged by the Mongols and it contributed to an expansion of commerce as well.
The Mongolians allowed people to follow their own beliefs and practice their own religions because of their own beliefs. They believe that there is only one god and that god created different people and different religions. Therefore, they accepted all the religions.
Video Segment #4: Timur (the lame)
8. What similarities existed between Timur and...
the Mongols of Chinggis Khan?
The Mongols of Chinggis Khan were similar to the Mongols of Timur because they were both based upon taking over the world. They were both ruthless to their enemies, using fear to win many battles. Timur also took advantage of good war tactics and took over the same area that Chinggis had once owned. They both believed that the world should be united under one ruler. And they allowed for an growth in trade because of the peace caused by the protection of the Mongol forces.
A difference would be the attachment Timur had to a religion. Chinggis did not justify his expansion with a faith.
the Mongols of Kublai Khan?
The Mongols of Kublai Khan were more similar to the Mongols of Timur because they were both sedentary, much more than the original Mongols. They both lived in a palace, and the people who lived in their capitals were not nomads. They both commissioned large palaces. And they both had claim to being related to Chinggis Khan.
Video Segment #3: Assimilation & Fragmentation of the Mongols
6a. How did the Mongol nomadic lifestyle change by the time of Kublai Khan's Yuan dynasty in China? (Provide at least 2 examples of change)
By the time of Kublai Khan's Yuan dynasty in China, changes in the Mongolian life style included acceptance of the more civilized societies, a sharp contrast from the days on Chinggis Khan, when people of the cities were looked down upon by the Mongols.
Another change that occurred in Mongolian lifestyle was the willingness to settle down. Kublai Khan himself preferred the soft lifestyle in the capital (now modern day Beijing) filled with luxuries and entertainment over the nomadic lifestyle Mongols used to led.
6b. Over the long term, to what extent were these changes positive or negative for the Mongol rulers of Eurasia?
By integrating themselves into the culture of the lands they conquered, Mongol rulers such as Kublai Khan were able to make their lands more powerful. For example, Kublai Khan was able to encourage religious freedom, extend the Grand Canal and encourage trade with Europe during his reign. However, this also had negative impacts on the Mongol rulers. Sometimes, they became so much like the people of the land they conquered that they lost their Mongolian identity. For example, Kublai Khan's Yuan Dynasty took on the Chinese name "Yuan" and took on some many Chinese traits that some Mongols didn't even consider them real Mongols.
7. Matthew Paris (English clergyman), William of Rubruk (a French Franciscan Friar), Marco Polo, Persian & Ming historians were all chroniclers of this period.
Why should we group these people together?
These people should be grouped together because they all had something to do with travel. Everyone worte something that is either a recording of their travel or is a map. Matthew Paris made lots of maps, William of Rubruk traveled to constantinpole to convert the Tartars, and Marco Polo traveled to the far East and wrote a book about his travels.
Why should we NOT group them together?
These people should not be grouped together because they all were from different places and had different reasons for their actions. Matthew Paris was devoted to his work, William of Rubruk accompanied King Louis IX for the Seventh Crusade, and Marco Polo went with his uncle and father who were merchants.
Why should we be critical of their accounts of the Mongol conquest and rule?
We should be critical of their accounts of the Mongol conquest and rule because they all took a part and interacted with Mongols. Matthew Paris wrote about Mongols and said that they were "devils" and said the Mongols were bad. Both William of Rubruk and Marco Polo traveled in the Mongol's land. William of Rubruk traveled to convert the Tartars. Marco Polo, his father and uncle were merchants and traded in the Mongol's land.
Video Segment #1: Unity & Conquest
2. Throughout history, ruthlessness and cruelty has been a weapon of conquering armies. Despite this view, how do modern-day Mongols view leaders like Chinggis Khan?
To modern-day Mongols, Chinggis Khan is more than just as a major historical figure. As the founder of the Mongol Empire, Chinggis Khan united nomadic tribes and gave them an ethnic identity: the Mongols. He turned a nomadic people into a fighting force, which he then mobilized for war. In addition to conquering vast amounts of land in Eurasia, Chinggis Khan promoted religious tolerance, as well as the development of a Mongol language. Today, modern-day Mongols view Chinggis Khan as a founding father of their country. After all, he was the one who united the nomadic tribes of northeast Asia and identified them as the Mongols. Therefore, modern-day Mongols respect Chinggis Khan and even worship him. For example, they give offerings in his name and worship him like they worship their god Tengri. This shows that modern-day Mongols view Chinggis Khan as an important symbol of Mongolian culture.
The Mongols have been and continue to be a distinct group from the steppes. Chinggis Khan didn't unite all the distinct peoples of the steppes into one group called Mongols. He did, however, unite them into one political entity- with Chinggis and his Mongols as the leaders.
3. The Mongols were never numerous. How did they compensate for this during or before battles?
Since the Mongols were never numerous they made up for this by using undercover operations and military tactics to defeat their enemies. The Mongols would send spies into enemy cities which the spies would then spread horrible stories of the cruelty of the Mongols and the ferocity of their attacks. During a battle the Mongols would stage mock retreats on horseback while shooting arrows at the enemy. When the enemy followed the Mongols would ambush and kill them. The use of Propaganda and smart military tactics made the limited number of Mongols into a deadly fighting force.
4. How did the Mongols take advantage of the advancements and scholarship of those they conquered?
1. What elements of Mongol life (even today) do you believe proved beneficial in their 13th - 14th C. conquests?
There were many different elements of Mongol life that proved beneficial to their conquests during the 13-14th C. One was their native horses. These Mongolian horses were smaller than the European horses, but proved to be very deadly vessels of destruction for the Mongols. These horses were strong, could live off the grass, and had amazing stamina. This stamina allowed the Mongolian armies to pursue their distant enemies with ease. Another element of advantage the Mongolians had were their houses. Their houses were actually wind-proof tents that were easily assembled and disassembled. This allowed the Mongols to quickly move from place to place throughout the steppes.
The Mongols used the scholarship and advancements by adapting scribes that they used and developing a written language for the Mongols.
The Uighurs served in this capacity & contributed to the creation of the written Mongol language.