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Seperates a pure liquid from a solution
Water from salt solution
The solution is boiled, the pure liquid turns into pure vapour.
The vapour is then cooled and condensed into a pure liquid. This pure liquid is called distillate.
Separates two or more miscible liquids, liquids which dissolve in one another to form a single layer.
Water and ethanol
The liquid with higher boiling point remains in the flask.
1. To separate pure oxygen and pure nitrogen from liquid air.
2. To separate hydrocarbons in crude oil in the petroleum industry.
3. To produce alcoholic drinks.
To separate mixtures of liquids that are immiscible (do not mix).
Water and oil
Mixture is placed in separating funnel and mixed well.
Once the liquids have settled, turn the tap to drain out each liquid one at a time.
Separates a mixture of solids, one of which sublimes.
Example of substances that sublimes:
1. Naphthalene (Moth ball)
4. Ammonium Chloride
5. Solid Carbon Dioxide
1. Separates and identifies the components in a mixture using a suitable solvent.
2. Separates mixtures of coloured substances.
Example: Paper chromatography
The principle involved depends on the relative solubilities of the pigments in the solvent.
The more soluble dye in the mixture will move further up the paper.
The different dyes move up the paper at different speeds.
Hence, the dyes are separated.
Paper chromatography can be used to separate coloured dyes or food colouring in a sweet.
The result of chromatography is called chromatogram.
Some uses of chromatography:
1. To test for the presence of colourless substances like Amino Acids found in proteins or sugars.
The chromatogram is sprayed with a locating agent.
A locating agent is a substance that reacts with the substances on the paper to produce a coloured product.
2. To separate and identify mixtures of coloured substances found in foods and dyes.
3. To separate substances in chemicals used on vegetables.
4. To analyse urine from athletes to find out if they have been using banned drugs to enhance performance.
1. A pencil line is drawn on a piece of chromatography paper.
2. A drop of solution of the inks is placed on the line.
3. Paper is dipped into a solvent; solvent travels up the paper.
4. Inks dissolve in the solvent and move up the paper.
5. Dyes more up at different speeds are thus separated
6. Identical dyes travel the same distance up the paper.
7. Dyes are then identified.
Separates a solute from a solution as well-formed crystal.
1. Salt from sea water
2.Copper (ll) sulphate crystal from its solution.
Involves evaporation to obtain a saturated solution.
Cooling the hot saturated solution to obtain the crystals.
1. Used to purify solids by dissolving them in a solvent to produce a solution.
2. Solution is heated to evaporate most of the solvent.
3. Produces a hot saturated solution.
4. Crystals of pure solid appear on cooling.
1. Direct Heating
- Uneven heating.
2. Indirect Heating
- Steam Bath
Size of crystal depends on the speed of crystallisation.
Fast: Small, fine crystals.
Slow: Large crystals.
Separates insoluble solids from liquids
2. Sodium Chloride+Calcium Carbonate
Principle: Relative solubilities of components
In the treatment of water, sand beds are used as filters.