" Generally speaking, summative assessments are defined by three major criteria:
Comprehensive assessment is a process of eliciting evidence of learners’ understanding and adapting instruction to increase their rate of learning. This process is integrated into regular classroom practice and involves three key steps:
"Formative assessments take place during a learning activity to provide the instructor with information regarding how well the learning objectives of a given learning activity are being met... [F]ormative assessment is particularly effective for students who have not done well in school, narrowing the gap between low and high achievers while raising overall achievement."
"Diagnostic assessments (also known as pre-assessments) provide instructors with information about student's prior knowledge and misconceptions before beginning a learning activity. They also provide a baseline for understanding how much learning has taken place after the learning activity is completed."
"...Assessment is any systematic approach for collecting information on student learning and performance, usually based on different sources of evidence. Alternative assessment involves approaches for finding out what students know or can do other than through the use of multiple-choice testing. Authentic assessment, therefore, is a subset of these alternative evaluation processes, and is based on the assumption that there is a much wider spectrum of student performance that can be displayed than that limited by short-answer, standardized tests. This wider spectrum should include real-life learning situations and meaningful problems of a complex nature not solved with simple answers selected from a menu of choices."
"A student portfolio is a systematic collection of student work and related material that depicts a student's activities, accomplishments, and achievements in one or more school subjects. The collection should include evidence of student reflection and self-evaluation, guidelines for selecting the portfolio contents, and criteria for judging the quality of the work."
"performance assessment encompasses a very wide range of activities from completing a sentence with a few words (short answer) to writing a thorough analysis (essay) to conducting a laboratory investigation and writing a descriptive analysis of the process (hands-on)."
Benefits Of Performance Assessment
A system of developmental checklists, portfolios of children's work, and summary reports, when used together, can help you to:
Peer assessment, or self-assessment, is a process whereby students or their peers grade assignments or tests based on a teacher’s benchmarks. The practice is employed to save teachers time and improve students' understanding of course materials as well as improve their metacognitive skills. Rubrics are often used in conjunction with Self- and Peer-Assessment. (Wikipedia, 2014)