Definition: Autism is a severe mental disorder that makes someone unable to respond to other people.
means concomitant [simultaneous] hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness.
means a hearing impairment so severe that a child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification
Visual Alerting Devices
There are devices available to help individuals alert to sound using visual support. Specially designed alarm clocks, smoke detectors, doorbells, timers, baby monitors, and phone alerting equipment are available to provide typically audible information in visual or vibratory ways. Some are designed with built-in lights or vibrators, and others adapt or connect to existing equipment. As with any other technologies, alerting and communication devices for individuals who are deaf come in a variety of styles and models, from a variety of companies, with a variety of prices.
the term developmental delay, as defined by each State, means a delay in one
or more of the following areas: physical development; cognitive development; communication; social
or emotional development; or adaptive [behavioral] development.
My own niece is a case of developmental delay, her case is mostly physical, I think mainly because my sister in law had some complications in pregnancy, she is the fourth child in her family. Luckily they are all in America, because I think America has a better special education system for kids like her. She is four now, so time to start pre-school education, I think her parents will take her to a special education program.
A condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to
a marked degree that adversely affects a child’s educational performance:
(a) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors.
(b) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers.
(c) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances.
(d) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression.
(e) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.
The term includes schizophrenia. The term does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted,
unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance.
An impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s
educational performance but is not included under the definition of "deafness."
FM systems: With FM systems, sound is transmitted directly from a microphone worn by a teacher or another person speaking, and transmitted via FM radio signals directly to an individual at a constant volume, regardless of the a person's distance from the FM microphone. There are two kinds of FM systems: personal and sound field. A personal FM system is coupled directly to a hearing aid or cochlear implant, with sound transmitted directly to the individual. A personal FM system needs to be set for each person using it. A sound field FM system provides increased and directed sound levels to a group of individuals. Special speaker units are placed strategically throughout a classroom or open space (e.g. auditorium, cafeteria, etc.) to direct amplified sound to the vicinity where needed. As a result, all individuals sitting within range of the speaker unit benefit from the amplified voice. Evidence is showing that even individuals who are not deaf or hard of hearing can reap the benefit of improved listening through sound field FM systems.
Infrared and Audio Induction Loop systems: While not as common as FM systems, these assistive technologies may also be used for listening in large spaces, including schools, religious institutions, and theaters. An Infrared system uses invisible light beams to carry sound to a personal receiver. Different types of attachments may be connected directly to a personal hearing aid or cochlear implant, or sound can be transmitted to headphones or speakers. An Audio Induction Loop system is a cable (induction loop) that circles a room or is worn around the neck and transmits sound electromagnetically. The electromagnetic signal is picked up by the telecoil in a hearing aid, cochlear implant, or headset. To be tied into the audio loop, the telecoil is switched on in an individual's hearing aid or cochlear implant.
Coupling accessories (for connectivity to media devices such as computers, TVs, tablets, smartphones, etc.): There are many accessories for hearing aids or cochlear implants that can connect to media devices. There are cables that plug directly from a hearing aid or cochlear implant into tablet devices or phones, or couplers which transmit sound wirelessly from hearing aids to media devices.
Significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently [at the same time]
with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely
affects a child’s educational performance.
Communicators are computers that allow a person to communicate audibly by pointing to particular images, or typing in a message. The computer then “speaks” the word, phrase, or sentence aloud. Communicators are often used by someone who has difficulty with verbal expression. A person can generally program in common sentences for later recall. Some communicators will also allow the person to program an entire discussion into the computer for later recall.
Concomitant [simultaneous] impairments (such as mental retardation-blindness, mental retardationorthopedic
impairment, etc.), the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that
they cannot be accommodated in a special education program solely for one of the impairments.
The term does not include deaf-blindness.
· Positioning/ Mobility o Good positioning/ handling of students with multiple disabilities is critical, both to reduce pain and prevent further physical complications, as well as to allow the individual to see, hear, reach and become engaged in persons and materials for optimal participation and learning. o Many students will also require aids for mobility both in general as well as during Physical Education classes. Assistive devices are instrumental in meeting these needs. · Communication o Most students with multiple disabilities have limited verbal communication skills. Adults or peers often make choices for students with multiple disabilities because they cannot speak. There should always be direct instruction to encourage even very physically involved students to make choices independently. Various low and high-technology Alternative and Augmentative Communication systems can be used to supplement or replace verbal communication. The range of options can be from non-tech (eg. eye-pointing to the actual object) to high- tech (eg. switch selection of choices displayed on a computer screen as they are scanned by a screen pointer). Speech Language Pathology as well as Occupational Therapy consultation is advised when decision-making is this area.
When you are expecting to have a child with orthopedic impairment in the class, consider the accessibility of the classroom. If the child is in a wheelchair, the class should be accessible by wheelchair. Check if the flooring is adequate for the child’s needs. Also check door width, stairs or thresholds and the door knobs. Toilet accessibility is another important issue that needs to be considered. If your classroom is not suitable, you will need to consider renovation or shifting to a different room.
A child in a wheelchair, or a child with a spinal problem, may require some special chair or table. Discuss these issues with the parents. If the child is finding it difficult to sit on the regular classroom chair, it will be worth considering getting a special chair for him for the classroom. The child will be spending a lot of his time everyday in the classroom. Moreover, if a child is not seated comfortably, learning and writing can be very difficult.
A child with a disability in their upper limb may benefit from writing aids. Writing aids include writing boards, special paper, pencil grips, and special pencil holders. Children with coordination problems may also benefit from a weighted vest. As a teacher you can help by emphasizing on learning the concept and giving the child a little extra time to write.
Having a child with a physical challenge in your classroom will require some modification in the lesson plans. Plan activities in such a way that all children, including the child with the orthopedic impairment, can participate. This can be done by adapting the materials you provide, assigning a helper, or allotting a task that they will be able to do independently. For detailed ideas about teaching and orthopedic impairment read these tips on lesson planning.
A classroom is a place made up of students and not their disabilities. The greatest barrier to inclusion is usually not architectural. It’s often teasing and exclusion by peers. So prepare your class to receive and include a child with an orthopedic impairment. Talk about how they need to care for and treat the child. Talk about how that child is just like them and thinks and feels just like them. Assign responsibilities for one child to help him go to the toilet, one child to sit with him in class, another child to accompany him during lunch break. The responsibilities will give the children opportunities to get to know the child better. In class, focus on the child’s abilities. Focus on the fact that we are all different, and need to accept each other.
Children with orthopedic impairment have normal intelligence and don’t need a special curriculum. What they need from you is acceptance, and a little adjustment. They’ll contribute more to your classroom than what you could ever contribute to them.
Having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental
stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that—
(a) is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention
deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning,
leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome; and
(b) adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
There are no specific technological devices that are recommended for students with AD/HD, but there are a number of tools that can be helpful in strengthening and supporting the organizational abilities of these individuals. Low tech devices such as notebooks and dividers can be utilized to record and organize assigned homework and classroom tasks. For older students, personal digital assistants, dictating machines, and a variety of computer programs can perform the same task.
For most students in the other health impairment category, it is the needs of the individual that drive the designation of appropriate assistive technology. For the most part, the majority of these students can access and benefit from the same technological supports that are used with their normally developing peers.
Matthew has ADHD, a disorder that makes it difficult for him to pay attention, complete assignments, and control his behavior. He is frequently off-task, out of his seat, talking out of turn, and fidgeting in his desk. After data collection and observation, his teacher tries the following accommodations:
These techniques help remind Matthew of the teacher's expectations. They also give him the breaks and explicit instructions he needs to function at his best in the classroom.
I had two students before with ADHD, the first one really taught me a lesson. I met the first one for the first year of teaching in an international school, as an inexperienced teacher I was not aware of the special need of that student, so I did not use any suggested interventions, and things went out of control. Then the second year Another student with ADHD was dealt with much more patience and tolerance after I realized his special need. So the suggested interventions I put up there really helps when it comes to ADHD kids, the key is patience and tolerance, and also more preparation and extra lesson plan for these special kids.
A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using
language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak,
read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations. The term includes such conditions as
perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia.
The term does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor
disabilities; of mental retardation; of emotional disturbance; or of environmental, cultural, or
Used with word processing, these software programs allow a user to create, store, and re-use abbreviations for frequently-used words or phrases. This can save the user keystrokes and ensure proper spelling of words and phrases he has coded as abbreviations.
These programmable keyboards have special overlays that customize the appearance and function of a standard keyboard. Students who have LD or have trouble typing may benefit from customization that reduces input choices, groups keys by color/location, and adds graphics to aid comprehension.
Recorded books allow users to listen to text and are available in a variety of formats, such as audiocassettes, CDs, and MP3 downloads. Special playback units allow users to and search and bookmark pages and chapters. Subscription services offer extensive electronic library collections.
Electronic math worksheets are software programs that can help a user organize, align, and work through math problems on a computer screen. Numbers that appear onscreen can also be read aloud via a speech synthesizer. This may be helpful to people who have trouble aligning math problems with pencil and paper.
The project evaluated two theoretically motivated interventions for young children with speech and language difficulties. One intervention involved training phonological skills in the context of structured literacy teaching. A second intervention involved training children’s receptive and expressive oral language skills.
It was predicted that the phonological intervention would primarily facilitate children’s phonological and phonic (reading and spelling accuracy) skills, while the language intervention should have improved children’s receptive and expressive oral language skills.
This is another niece of mine from the same family I mentioned in the other category. She is the second daughter of my sister in law's family. This proves how common special education is for kids, two kids out of four in one normal family requires special educations, the other two are also special in their own way. Back to the case, she seriously injured her skull when she was about 3, and since then she started to be hyperactive and have some psychological behavioral problems according to her parents. But I think it's more about her personality than the post-traumatic brain injury effect. So as suggested intervention goes, evaluation of the client is the first step of the intervention process.
A wide range of services may be provided through an early intervention program, including