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Mind Map Section 10.2
Cell Shape and Movement
All living things are made up of one or more cells.
The cell membrane is a flexible coating that acts as a protection for the cell, similar to human skin.
A cell wall is a stiff structure outside the cell membrane. Think of it as another layer of skin or armor.
Only plants, fungal cells, bacteria, and some types of protists have these.
Cytoplasm and the Cytoskeleton
Cytoplasm is a fluid that contains salts and other molecules essential to a cell's life.
A Cytoskelton is a network of threadlike proteins that are joined together.
This allows the cell to have framework and help it move, similar to the actual skeleton.
Cell Appendages are pretty much the limbs of a cell. They help the cell with movement. There are two types: Flagella and Cilia
A Flagella is a long, tail-like appendage at the back of a cell
Cilia are small, hairlike structures around the hole cell.
Unlike prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells contain nuclei. Their DNA is stored in there.
They also have organelles. They are a much smaller version regular organs. Think of them as cell organs.
These cells are types of cells that don't have nuclei or organelles.
Their DNA is flying all around their bodies.
Examples: Bacteria, Archaebacteria
The nucleus is the largest oranelle in a eukaryotic cell.
It contains DNA organized into a structure called chromosomes.
Ribomsomes are located in a cell's cytoplasm and they make proteins essential for the cell's survival.
They can be attached to another organelle called the endoplasmic reticulum.
The endoplasmic reticumlum (ER) spreads from the nucleus to all over the cell.
There are two types of ER: Rough ER and Smooth ER
Rough ER are the sites of protein production.
Smooth ER are the sites of lipids and cholesterol.
Most eukaryotic cells contain mitochondria. It is surrounded by two membranes.
Energy is released during chemical reactions that occur in the mitochondria. It is stored in high-energy-molecules called ATP (Adenosine Triphophate)
Plant cells contain chloroplasts. They are membrane bound organelles that use light energy to make food (glucose) using water and carbon dioxide through photosynthesis.
Processing, Transporting, and Storing Molecules
Near the ER is the Golgi. It prepares proteins for specific jobs. Then, it packages them into tiny, membrane-bound, ball-like structures called vesicles.
Vesicles are organelles that transport substances from one area to antoher.
Vesicles in an animal cell are called lysomes.
Some cells have vacuoles. They are organelles that store food, water, and waste material.