The dynasties of this period were generally war-like and expansionist. Egypt, essentially, becomes an empire- conquering peoples of distant lands, different races, different cultures.
Menes and Scorpion King are two additional names/ titles that this historical figure has had attached to him.
balance, truth, justice
Time periods during the life of the civilization when social/ political turmoil dominates. The kingdom may be divided and rule may be contested by powerful families.
Weakening of central government. Period of climatic change to more arid environment. Food shortages. Provinces struggle individually. Herakleopolis Magna (at Faiyum entrance) in the north and Thebes in the south emerge as main centers of power.
Western Asiatic kings originating from foreign community at Avaris with strong ties to southern Canaan gain power over most of Egypt. They are called chiefs of foreign lands' (in Egyptian heka khasut, or Hyksos). They adopt the Egyptian title of pharaoh, usurp earlier monuments, and make contacts with the kingdom of Kerma in Nubia. Ruling dynasty of Thebes contemporaneous with the Hyksos. They acknowledge Hyksos as their overlords, but at the end of the dynasty King Kamose starts movement to expel the Hyksos. From this time onward, Egyptian military power is based on the use of horse-drawn chariots.
Egypt again divided; one dynasty rules in Nile Delta, sharing power with high priests of Amun at Thebes. Egypt gradually further divided. Dynasties of Libyan descent coexist with other contemporary dynasties. Egypt's international power wanes. Rule over Nubia collapses. Private tombs more modest; high artistic quality maintained most notably in decoration of coffins and in metal casting and inlay.