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Chapter 3 Notes
If Cuban immigrants are intercepted at sea, they are depoted, but if they make it to land they are allowed to stay.
Haitians flood the coats of FL hoping for job oppurtunites
Most immigrants come for the sole purpose of money making.
Money sent home is called remittances.
Haitians send about 350 million in remittances every year,
Countries recognize the need for immigrant labor and allow temporary visas in jobs like agriculture.
Canada has companies thet go down to Mexico to look for people who want jobs.
They can have these jobs as long as no citizens want it.
Where do People Migrate?
Global Migration Flows
A complete map of the globe did not exist till the 1800s.
European colonization started most of the migration trend.
British were also a key in relocating Asians, mainly Indians.
Regional Migration Flows
Migartion occurs a regional scale too, with migrants going to get short term economic opportunities.
European colonization helped establish islands of development.
places within a region or country where most foreign investment goes, where most paying jobs are and where infrastructure is conmcentrated.
Reconnection of Cultural Groups
Ex: Jews were reconnected with the homelands of Jerusalem and tradition in Israel.
Conflict and War
ex: At the end of WWII Germans fled Europe because they were prosecuted or voluntarily.
National Migration Flows
Basically internal flows. (inside the nation)
After Civil War millions of African AMericans moved North for jobs.
Russia encouraged people to move out of Moscow and fill up the country.
People that migrate for job opportunities.
After WWII many Europe lost many young men, encouraging people from poorer countries to move in.
Often work as agricuture labor or service industries(hotels, restaraunts etc.)
Many employers abuse rights of guest workers but they stay because it is better pay than ehat they would have at home.
When the need for laborers no longer exists, they can be sent home.
Often by force, or when situation is perilous, they can be pulled out by their home country.
The worlds refugee population has grown faster than actual population growth.
UNHCR defines refugee as:a person who has a well- founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, social group, poliical opinion.
hard to define "well-founded".
Internal refugees are inside the country.
International refugees cross one or more border.
Identified by 3 charcteristics:
1. Without property that can be transported.
2. Most make first step on foot, boat, bike, wagon..
3. Move without official documents.
Regions of dislocation.
North Africa and Southwest Asia
Displaced Arab populations around Israel
The Soviet Invasion displaced many in Afghanistan
The Taliban invaded Afghanistan in the 90's and caused hundres of thousands of refugees to flee to Pakistan and Iran
Renewed outbreak of hostilities, civil wars etc. all cause refugees.
Sudan in Civil War for two decades.
Pakistan accomodated the Aghan forced immigratns.
A civil war in Sri Lanka causes a large amount of internal refugees.
Seems to be a never ending cycle, with the countries rotating out.
The collapse of Yugoslavis ia major part in Europs refugees.
The Western Hemisphere is low refugee count.
Only big one was Colombia in 1997, with drug issues.
How do governments affect migration?
Great Wall of China, Rio Grande fences, Korean DMZ, Berlin Wall.. etc.
Waves of Immigration in US.
During 1800s U.S. opened doors to migration, which brought Europeans.
1945-1970 about 7 million refugees entered US.
Typically migration obstacles are legal, not physical.
Congress approved immigration laws to stop chinese from entering CA.
Before 9/11 The U.S. was primarily concerned about drug trafficking and human smuggling,
After 9/11 asylum-seekers were cracked down on and 33 countries were determoined al-Qaeda operating countries and denied any asylum seekeres from theses 33 access to America.
The Justice Department has a law that allows it to detain any illegal immigrant, for fear they could be using a country as a staging ground.
Papers were very easy to recreate, and if any were flagged, only the bag was checked not the person, allowing the terrorists in.
What is Migration?
Human movement speeds the diffusion of ideas and innovations.
Journeys that begin at home places, and bring us back to it.
Short moves that create day, creating activity spaces.
Commuting (journey to and from work) is also considered migration.
Seasonal movement; movinig from the north down to the Sun belt
Nomadism is another type. Moving for survival, culture, and tradition.
Not as common anymore, but in some parts of Asia and Africa.
Most nomads have a pattern that they follow to get around bacause of borders and resources.
Longer time away from home, but still coming back.
Ex: going to college and only coming back for summer.
MIgrant labor is a good example.The migrants go to an area for a job and then move back later.
Transhumance migration is when ranchers move livestock according ot seasonal availability of pastures.
Military service is also a way of migration. Families can move wherever needed.
Permanent relocation over significant distances is migration.
International Migration is moving across national borders. This is called external migration.
Emigrant is one who leaves the country.
subtracts from population
Immigrant is one who enters the new country.
adds to population
Internal Migration: movement within the coutry
African Americans from South to North in 1900s.
America is the most mobile country.
Moving from rural and urban areas to middle size towns.
Peruvians leave the rural areas to Lima.
Why do people Migrate?
Imposition of authority or power.
The Atlantic Slave Trade was froced migration.
It was not only the Americas, it was throughout Europe too.
Still happens today, in the U.S., people are forcibly removed if they cross illegally.
The migrant weighs and evaulates decision.
Push and Pull Factors in Voluntary Migration
Ravensteins Laws of Migration
1. Every migration flow generates a return or counter-migration
2. The majority of migrantss move a short distance.
3. Migrants who move longer ditstances tend to choose big-city destinations.
4. Urban residents are less migratory than inahbitants of rural areas.
5. Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults.
The number of migrants to a location declines as the distance increases.
Distance Decay: Prospective migrants are more likely to have more clear perceptions of near places than further ones.
Migrants tend to move closer thann they orginally intended because of distance decay.
Step migration is when a group of people migrates slowly to a larger area bit by bit. (village, town, city, big city)
Not all make it because of intervening opportunity- an opportuniy more appealing than the original one.
Push Factors: the conditions and perceptions that help the migrant decide to leave.
Pull Factors: circumstances that efectively attract the migrant to certain locales from other places.
include: work/retirement conditions, cost of living, personal afety, security, weather issues.. etc.
tend to be more vague and depend on perceptions
Types of Push an Pull Factors
Poverty has driven millions to leave their country for Western Europe and Eastern North America in search for better life.
Migrations driven by politics are marked by both escape and expulsion.
Volcanic eruptions have inspired the people of Montsserat to leave because of the exclusion zones.
Famine, earthquakes, hurricanes, volcanoes etc.
Armed Conflict and Civil War
Culture and Tradition
People who fear the traditions and culture will change with political transitions and can move to "safer" places, they will.
News on new land travel faster than it used to.
People are pulled by the success of kin in the new land.
Called chain migration, this attracts family too, and can promise housing and incentives.