The common Germanic layer includes words which are shared by most Germanic languages. This layer is certainly smaller than the layer of common IE words. Semantically these words are connected with nature, with the sea and everyday life.
screap – sheep; macian – make; hus – house; drincan – drink; land – land; safe – sea; wisdom – wisdom.
These words are not found in any other language. They are very few, the verb clipian "call" is one of them
Building new words from syntactical groups
Building new words by using existing words in new meanings
OE borrowings come from two sources: Celtic and Latin.
There are very few Celtic loan-words in the OE vocabulary, for there must have been little intermixture between the Germanic settlers and the Celtic in Britain. Borrowing from Celtic is to be found only in place-names. The OE kingdoms Kent, Deira and Bernicia derive their names from the names of Celtic tribes. The name of York, the Downs and perhaps London have been traced to Celtic sources. Various Celtic designations of river and water were understood by the Germanic invaders as proper names: Ouse, Esk, Exe, Avon; Thames, Stour, Dover also come from Celtic. Many place-names with Celtic elements are hybrids; the Celtic component, combined with a Latin or a Germanic component, makes a compound place-name, e.g.: Celtic plus Latin: Man-chester, Win-chester, Lan-caster; Celtic plus Germanic: York-shire, Corn-wall, Devon-shire, Canter-bury.
Early OE borrowings from Latin belong to war, trade, agriculture, building and home life. Among the Latin loan-words adopted in Britain were some place-names made of Latin and Germanic components, e.g. Portsmouth, Greenport, Greenwich.
belt - belt; butere - butter; camp - field, battle; candel - candle; catt - cat; ceaster - city; cetel - kettle; cupp - cup; cycene - kitchen; cyse - cheese;
The introduction of Christianity in the late 6th c. Numerous Latin words which found their way into the English language during these five hundred years clearly fall into two main groups: words pertaining to religion; words connected with learning.
orgel – organ; papa – pope; regol – religious rule;
Translation-loans. The Latin impact on the OE vocabulary was not restricted to borrowing of words. There were also other aspects of influence. The most important of them is the appearance of the so-called translation-loans – words and phrases created on the pattern of Latin words as their literal translations. The earliest instances of translation-loans are names of the days of the week found not only in OE but also in other Old Germanic languages. OE Mōnan-dæз (Monday) day of the moon, Lunae dies.
About 900 words were borrowed during this phase, with most of them showing the effects of Anglo-Norman phonology.
baron, noble, dame, servant, messenger, feast, minstrel, juggler, largess.
story, rime, lay, douzepers.
The largest number of words were borrowed for use in religious services since the French-speaking Normans took control of the church in England.
govern, government, administer, crown, state, empire, royal, majesty, treaty, statute, parliament, tax, rebel, traitor, treason, exile, chancellor, treasurer, major, noble, peer, prince, princess, duke, squire, page (but not king, queen, lord, lady, earl), peasant, slave, servant, vassal.
religion, theology, sermon, confession, clergy, clergy, cardinal, friar, crucifix, miter, censer lectern, abbey, convent, creator, savior, virgin, faith, heresy, schism, solemn, divine, devout, preach, pray, adore, confess
justice, equity, plaintiff, judge, advacate, attorney, petition, inquest, felon, evidence, sue, accuse arrest, blame, libel, slander, felony, adultery, property, estate, heir, executor.
(Much of the fighting during this time was done in France. Many now-obsolete words for pieces of armor, etc., were borrowed at this time.) army, navy, peace, enemy, arms, battle, spy, combat, siege, defence, ambush, soldier, guard, mail, buckler, banner, lance, besiege, defend, array.
habit, gown, robe, garment, attire, cape, coat, collar, petticoat, train, lace, embroidery, pleat, buckle, button, tassel, plume, satin, taffeta, fur, sable, blue, brown, vermilion, russet, tawny, jewel, ornament, broach, ivory, turquoise, topaz, garnet, ruby, pearl, diamond
feast, repast, collation, mess, appetite, tart, sole, perch, sturgeon, sardine, venison, beef, veal, mutton, port, bacon, toast, cream, sugar, salad, raisin, jelly, spice, clove, thyme
curtain, couch, lamp, wardrobe, screen, closet, leisure, dance, carol, lute, melody.
rein, curry, trot, stable, harness, mastiff, spaniel, stallion, pheasant, quail, heron, joust, tournament, pavilion.
painting, sculpture, music, beauty, color, image, cathedral, palace, mansion, chamber, ceiling, porch, column, poet, prose, romance, paper, pen, volume, chapter, study, logic, geometry, grammar, noun, gender, physician, malady, pain, gout, plague, pulse, remedy, poison.
include nouns--age, air, city, cheer, honor, joy; adjectives--chaste, courageous, coy, cruel, poor, nice, pure; verbs--advance, advise, carry, cry, desire; phrases--draw near, make believe, hand to hand, by heart, without fail (These are loan-translations).
The principal inner means in New English is the appearance of new words formed by means of conversion. Usually new words are formed by acquiring a new paradigm and function within a sentence. Thus, book (a noun) has the paradigm book — books. Book (a verb) has the paradigm book — books — booked — booking, etc. (The book is on the table - He booked a room.) Similarly:man (n) — man (v)stone (n) — stone (v) — stone (adj)(as in "a stone bench"), etc.
Very many new words appear in New English due to borrowing. It is necessary to say here that the process of borrowing, the sources of loan words, the nature of the new words is different from Middle English and their appearance in the language cannot be understood unless sociolinguistic factors are taken into consideration.Chronologically speaking, New English borrowings may be subdivided into borrowings of the Early New English period XV—XVII centuries, the period preceeding the establishment of the literary norm, and loan words which entered the language after the establishment of the literary norm — in the XVIII—XX centuries, the period which is generally alluded to as late New English.
Borrowings into the English language in the XV—XVII centuries are primarily due to political events and also to the cultural and. trade relations between the English people and peoples in other countries. Thus, in the XV century — the epoch of Renaissance, there appeared in the English language many words borrowed from theItalian tongue
cameo, archipelago, dilettante, fresco, violin, balcony, gondola, grotto, volcano;in the XVI century — Spanish and Portuguese words, such as:armada, negro, tornado, mosquito, renegade, matadorand also Latin (the language of culture of the time), for instance:— verbs, with the characteristic endings -ate, -ute:aggravate, abbreviate, exaggerate, frustrate, separate, irritate, contribute, constitute, persecute, prosecute, execute, etc.,— adjectives ending in -ant, -ent, -ior, -al:arrogant, reluctant, evident, obedient, superior, inferior, senior, junior, dental, cordial, filial.
As a result of numerous Latin borrowings at the time there appeared many ethymological doublets:Latinstrictum(direct) strict strait (through French)senioremsenior sirfaclumfact featdefectumdefect defeatIn the XVII century due to relations with the peoples of America such words were borrowed as:canoe, maize, potato, tomato, tobacco, mahogany, cannibal, hammock, squaw, moccasin, wigwam, etc.
French borrowings — after the Restoration:ball, ballet, billet, caprice, coquette, intrigue, fatigue, naive.
kindergarten, waltz, wagon, boy, girl
magazine, machine, garage, police, engine, nacelle, aileron
bungalow, jungle, indigo
caravan, divan, alcohol, algebra, coffee, bazaar, orange, cotton, candy, chess
kangaroo, boomerang, lubra
Before the October Revolution the borrowings from the Russian language were mainly words reflecting Russian realia of the time:borzoi, samovar, tsar, verst, taiga, etc.
The long homiletic poem entitled the Ormulum is the work of an Augustinian canon called Orm (a name of Scandinavian origin) who probably lived in south Lincolnshire; the dating is controversial, but Orm may have started work on the text as early as the middle of the twelfth century and continued well into old age. It contains well over a hundred words of either certain or likely Scandinavian origin, including some which are of common occurrence in modern English such as to anger, to bait, bloom, boon, booth, bull, to die, to flit, ill, law, low, meek, to raise, root, to scare, skill, skin, to take, though, to thrive, wand, to want, wing, wrong. Perhaps most interestingly of all, it contains some of the earliest evidence for one of the most important Scandinavian borrowings, the pronoun they and the related object form them and possessive their.
It is no wonder that the Latin language experted considerable influence on different aspects of English: the old English alphabet, the growth of writing and literature. The impact of Latin on the OE vocabulary enables us to see the spheres of Roman influence on the life in Britain.
There are very few Celtic loan-words in the OE vocabulary, for there must have been little intermixture between the Germanic settlers and the Celtc in Britain. Though in some parts of the island the Celts population was not exterminated during the WG invasion, linguistic evedence of Celtic influence is meager. Obviously there was little that the newcomers could learn from the subjugated Celts. Abundant borrowing from Celtic is to be found only in place-names. The OE kingdoms Kent, Deira and Bernicia derive their names from the namesof Celtic tribes.