DEFINITION:Simultaneous impairments such as intellectual disability-blindness and intellectual disability-orthopedic impairment, etc. The combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in a special education program solely for one of the impairments. Does not include deaf-blindness.
DEFINITION:For children birth - 3 years old, and 3 - 9 years oldTerm is defined by each stateDelay in one or more of these areas: physical development, cognitive development, communication, social or emotional development or behavioral development
Refers to an individual's awareness and ability to conduct himself, both in everyday activities and to others, and including the ability to learn.Excludes communication disability.Examples:Transient self-awareness, body image orientation such as phantom limb, personal uncleanliness, disturbance of self-representation, disability relating to location in time and space, identifying persons or objects correctly, conduct out of context such as cultural shock, transvestism, pseudo-feeble-mindedness
DEFINITION:Exhibiting one or more of the characteristics: (a) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors.(b) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers.(c) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances.(d) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression.(e) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.Over a long period of time and to a significant degreeAdversely affects a student's educational performanceIncludes schizophreniaDoes not apply to children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance.
Coordinate services between home, school, and community, keeping the communication channels open between all parties involved
Mood disorders are a category of illnesses that describe a serious change in mood. Illness under mood disorders include: major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder (mania - euphoric, hyperactive, over inflated ego, unrealistic optimism), persistent depressive disorder (long lasting low grade depression), cyclothymia (a mild form of bipolar disorder), and SAD (seasonal affective disorder).
Eating Disorders describe illnesses that are characterized by irregular eating habits and severe distress or concern about body weight or shape. Eating disturbances may include inadequate or excessive food intake which can ultimately damage an individual’s well-being. The most common forms of eating disorders include Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Binge Eating Disorder and affect both females and males.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a disorder of the brain and behavior. OCDcauses severe anxiety in those affected. OCDinvolves both obsessions and compulsions that take a lot of time and get in the way of important activities the person values.
Psychiatric disorders, including depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder, affect millions of people around the world. Without intervention, they can have devastating effects and interfere with daily life.
DEFINITION:A developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interactionGenerally noticeable before 3 years of ageEngaged in repetitive or stereotyped movementsResistant to environmental change or change in daily routineUnusual response to sensory experiencesIf child's academic performance is primarily affected by emotional disturbances, the child is not considered autistic.
Elijah, 6 years old boy, was diagnosed of AS when he was about 3 years old. He started attending Norwegian International School in Hong Kong this year. His parents are teachers in local schools, and they are very supportive and engaged in his learning. Elijah is support in the Learning Support of the school by a Special Education Needs teacher and me, a teaching assistant for Learning Support.
Refers to individual's ability to generate and emit messages, and to receive and understand messages.Examples:Speaking, listening, seeing, writing, symbolic communication, nonverbal expression and communication
DEFINITION:A communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment Adversely affects a child’s educational performance
Children empower a virtual robot to explore new adventures in a playground filled with activities, by utilizing the specially developed analog functionality of Mission Control™.
Use this talking word processor with associated word pictures or animations.
Interactive talking dictionaries help improve reading and writing skills.
Underlying deficit of inconsistent speech disorder is a phonological planning deficit. Most affected children probably fall in the severe Speech Sound Disorder range.
The Core Vocabulary Therapy procedure begins with the child, parents and teacher selecting, with the therapist’s help if required, 50 words that are functionally ‘powerful’ for the child, and ‘mean something’ to him or her, such as, names: family, friends, teacher, pets; places: school, library, a park, swimming; functional words: please, thank you, toilet; favourite things: sport, superheroes, games and characters.
Ten words are selected from the list and best production is drilled in twice-weekly sessions. At the end of the week the child produces the 10 words three times. Words produced consistently are removed from the list of 50 words. Words that are inconsistently produced remain on the list from which the next week’s 10 words are randomly chosen.
Normal phonological acquisition is gradual.
In its implementation, DTTC begins with direct, immediate imitation of natural speech.
Miccio and Elbert (1996) proposed teaching all consonants (stimulable and non-stimulable) at once in every session. Because the primary goal is to enhance stimulability speech sounds are taught in isolation (s::::::) or in a variation of the approach, in CVs (soo, see, sie, saw…).
Each consonant is associated with an interesting, alliterative character depicted on "Character Cards" and a hand or body motion.In this therapy the targets become the focus of joint attention. Direct imitation is not required, but ‘vocal practice’ and ‘requests’ (for Character Cards), in simple turn-taking games, are encouraged. The emphasis is on ensuring ‘successful communications’.
When Fiona (Miccio, 2009) produced [d] in a therapy session, but mimed zipping up her coat, the clinician knew the intended sound was [z], and gave her Zippy Zebra. At the same time, the clinician provided feedback about how to produce [z] while miming zipping her coat: ‘Let me see, do I have Zippy Zebra? Zippy Zebra says [z::::::::::].’ Fiona chose characters to ask for, and when it was the clinician’s turn to ask for a character, she always chose non-stimulable sounds.
Fiona’s phonetic inventory was [m n p b t d w j h]. She was seen twice weekly for 50 minutes, for 12 weeks (24 treatments; 20 hours of intervention). All consonants were worked on, including those in Fiona’s phonetic inventory. Motions were always used concurrently with speech production. By the end of this therapy she was stimulable for all targeted sounds. She produced many of them in simple words or used typical developmental substitutions in more difficult contexts. She had 4 weeks break from therapy attendance. She then received a minimal pair treatment (maximal oppositions) to encourage generalisationof her ‘new sounds’ across her phonological system.
In Imagery Therapy (Klein 1996a, b) error and target are contrasted and the feature difference is usually minimal. This means that Sue-zoo, sue-shoe or Sue-soon would be more usual oppositions for the SLP/SLT to introduce than more perceptually salient and distinct contrasts like Sue-moo or Sue-roo.
Labels and images of phonetic characteristics are used to aid the child’s learning of new phonological rules. The rational for the approach is that homonymy motivates phonemic change.
Klein (1996a) says that the approach is suitable for ‘children with one or many phonological processes’ with mild through to severe SSD.
Metaphon (Dean & Howell, 1986; Dean, Howell, Hill & Waters, 1990; Dean, Howell, Waters & Reid, 1995) is based on the principle that homophony motivates phonemic change.
Phonological analysis is performed using the test in the Metaphon Resource Pack (or the phonological assessment of choice) and errors are described in terms of phonological processes. Target vs. substitute sound pairs are selected for treatment. Feature contrasts are usually minimal or near-minimal. The essence of Metaphon is in two overlapping treatment phases followed by a discrete final phase.
Metaphonetic skills are trained to improve a child’s ‘cognitive awareness’ of the properties of the sound system, while metalinguistic tasks are used to develop more successful use of repair strategies.
“All phonological approaches focus on teaching children the function of sounds, particularly that changing sounds changes meaning, and that making meaning is a necessary to communication. All rest on the principle that once it is introduced to a child’s system, a featural contrast will show generalisation to other relevant phonemic pairs.” Barlow & Gierut, 2002
"Words derive their structure not only from the sounds they include but also from the organization of those sounds within the word. This organization is the phonotactic level of the word: roughly, its shape including the sequence of its elements. Often, children with immature or disordered phonologies demonstrate phonotactic as well as phonetic limitations. Sometimes, the child may produce an age-appropriate variety of consonants and vowels but be unable to use them in the configurations required by the language: final consonants, clusters, multisyllabic words, and so forth. In such cases, the most appropriate therapy goals may be phonotactic, rather than phonetic, ones. Studies have shown that clinical focus on a new word or syllable shape may generalize well beyond the specific sound or sounds targeted in that position. These ideas are explored in this article, along with specific therapy results and recommendations for various phonotactic limitations”. Velleman, 2002
Assessment within the PACT approach, whether initial or ongoing, is integral to intervention. Parents play a key role, so it is highly desirable for them to understand the speech-language assessment process. Wherever possible they observe administration and scoring of the Quick Screener, and the results are discussed with the child presence.
Phonological awareness (PA) is conscious knowledge about the sound structure of words, from syllables to phonemes. Phoneme awareness is a sub-type of PA, concerning awareness of individual phonemes within a word. It covers identification of the word onset, and matching, counting or manipulation (movement or exchange) of phonemes.
The psycholinguistic approach provides an inclusive means of investigating, describing and profiling children’s speech and literacy difficulties through the application of a speech processing model and a developmental phase models of speech and literacy.
A child’s spoken and written language-skill strengths are identified and used as a foundation for selecting intervention targets that build on a child’s existing abilities.
For a child with speech processing and production difficulties these targets would be selected not only in relation to speech data but also in relation to linguistic, educational, medical and psychosocial factors, according to individual need, thereby optimising the prospect of across-the-board case management.
Some of the procedures that have characterised speech-language pathology assessment and intervention for functional speech disorders (articulation disorders), and which may be considered by many SLPs/SLTs to embrace 'traditional' approaches, were described by Powers (1971). She maintained that the 'stimulus methods' developed and described by Travis (1931), had remained the core of the majority of treatment methodologies used by speech-language pathologists.
Powers began her therapy with auditory discrimination training. A sound was identified, named, discriminated from other speech sounds, and then discriminated in contexts of increasing complexity.
A Whole Language typical treatment session targets might include question forms, personal pronouns and /h/ SIWI. The clinician might read to the child a book such as ‘Are you my mother?’ from the Berenstain Bears Series modelling the question form, pronouns, and /h/ SIWI, especially in he, his and her that occur frequently in the story. Then the therapist would re-tell the story, stating with short utterances and gradually increasing their length. As the story is re-told, the child repeats each brief utterance and then, if able, tells the story again (perhaps to a puppet or doll). Therapy takes place via conversational interactions and story contexts, incorporating cues, cloze sentences, rebus stories, story reading (to the child) and story telling (to the child and by the child) with no picture or object-naming per se.
DEFINITION:Simultaneous hearing and visual impairmentsCombination causes severe communication andeducational needs that cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for students with deafness or students with blindness
Matthew is 10-year old who has been participating in the model classroom project since 2004. When Matthew began the Deaf Blind Project in UNC School of Medicine, he had few methods for formal communication, which included 15-20 crudely approximated signs (recognizable to only familiar communication partners), a single message device and a frequently thrown 8-location augmentative communication device.
DEFINITION:Severe hearing impairmentStudent cannot process linguistic informationthrough hearing even with amplificationAdversely affect student's education performance
DEFINITION:Impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuatingAdversely affects a child’s educational performance Not included under definition of “deafness.”
DEFINITION:A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or writtenManifested in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculationsIncludes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. Does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities; of intellectual disability; of emotional disturbance; or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage
DEFINITION:An impairment in vision that, even with correctionAdversely affects a child’s educational performanceIncludes both partial sight and blindness
Refers to individual's ability to execute distinctive activities associated with moving, both himself and objects, from place to place.Examples:walking, running, climbing, excretion, bathing, transport, sitting, lying, lifting
DEFINITION:Severe orthopedic impairmentAdversely affects a child’s educational performanceIncludes impairments caused by a congenital anomaly, impairments caused by disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis), and impairments from other causes (e.g.,cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractors).
Orthopedic and neuromotor impairments are different and separate disability types, but they can cause similar limitations. For example, a child with spinal cord damage (neuromotor) unable to move her legs, for example, may develop bone and muscle disorders in the legs (orthopedic).
Refers to adroitness and skill in bodily movements, including manipulative skills and the ability to regulate control mechanism.Can affect daily activities, manual activities, etc.
Circumstantial dependence is dependence on continued existence and activity for life-sustaining equipment or special procedures or care.Disability in endurance such as sitting and standing positions, exercise tolerance, physical endurance, etc.Environmental Disabilities such as intolerance of UV light, humidity, noise, illumination, work stress, etc.
DEFINITION:An acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical forceResulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or bothAdversely affects a child’s educational performanceIncludes open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas, such as cognition; language; memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking; judgment; problem-solving; sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities; psychosocial behavior; physical functions; information processing; and speech.Does not apply to brain injuries that are congenital or degenerative, or to brain injuries induced by birth trauma
Josh a 6th-grade student was severely injured in a motor vehicle accident and suffered a severe TBI, with multiple areas of hemorrhage in the right frontal and temporal regions. Josh also sustained facial fractures, as well as a right humerus fracture. He remained in a coma for 2 days and, after regaining consciousness, spent an additional 3 weeks in the hospital’s rehabilitation unit. After discharge, he continued to receive outpatient physical and occupational therapies 2–3 hrs per week.Shortly after the accident, the school principal contacted Josh’s parents and continued to communicate with them throughout the hospital stay. Prior to Josh’s return to school, his teachers, principal, and the school psychologist scheduled a meeting with the parents. The principal asked the school psychologist to serve as Josh’s case manager. Prior to his injury, Josh had been an average student in regular education, but struggled somewhat in math. He was social, had many friends, and was active in sports. At the meeting, Josh’s parents discussed his current levels of functioning and areas of impairment and the school team developed a plan to accommodate his needs. Six weeks after his injury, Josh continued to have some cognitive problems in the area of memory, information-processing speed, and executive functioning. His verbal skills and reading skills remained relatively strong. Josh had slowed motor speed and had a mild right-sided weakness. He had decreased endurance and fatigued easily.On the basis of this information, the school team recommended and developed accommodations for his return to school at the meeting. It was decided that Josh would initially return to school on a modified basis, starting with 2 hr per day, in the mornings, gradually increasing his attendance to all day as his physical endurance improved. The team scheduled more difficult subjects during the morning to minimize fatigue. Although Josh was eligible for special education services, the parents and school team decided Josh could be successful in his regular classroom with accommodations, and formalized these accommodations by developing a 504 Plan. These accommodations included the following:• Allowing Josh to take breaks in the counseling area as needed and to check in with the psychologist at the beginning of the day for organizing sessions and to review his schedule.• Seating Josh near the front of the classsroom in a quiet location near a designated peer buddy who could provide carbon copy notes and assist with prompts.• Reducing written work requirements giving additional time to complete assignments, allowing him to dictate responses, and provide him with an extra set of books for home use.• Providing multiple-choice exams and avoiding time limits in testing.• Posting a schedule of daily activities in a visible place and training and prompting Josh to record his assignments in a daily planner.• Determining environmental factors and situations that caused agitation and frustration (e.g., sensory overload, changes in routine) and avoiding them as much as possible. (The teacher and Josh developed a plan for him to “take 5” [take a 5 min. break when he became frustrated], by looking at magazines, or running an office errand).• Meeting with the middle school team: Prior to his transition to middle school in the 7th grade, the school team, parents, and Josh met with the middle school team to discuss concerns and review the plan.
Ability to plan task, problem-solve, adaptability, independence in fulfillment, task motivation and interest, capacity to control own work and compare it to others, sensorimotor coordination, dexterity, accuracy, tidiness, punctuality, safety behavior, endurance, performance rate and quality
DEFINITION:Having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuliResulting in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndromeAdversely affects a child’s educational performance
Refers to individual's ability to look after himself in regards to basic physiological activities, such as excretion and feeding, and to caring for himself such as hygiene and dressing.
DEFINITION:Significantly subaverage general intellectual functioningExisting simultaneously with deficits in adaptive behavior Manifested during the developmental periodAdversely affects a child’s educational performance