All bilingual program models use the students' home language, in addition to English, for instruction. These programs are most easily implemented in districts with a large number of students from the same language background. Students in bilingual programs are grouped according to their first language, and teachers must be proficient in both English and the students' home language.
Also called Dua language education. It integrates language and academic instruction for native English speakers and native speakers of another language, for example, Spanish, for content and literacy instruction.
To reach grade level mastery of content in students' first language.
To ensure grade level mastery of academic content as students are transferred to all-English instruction.
1. To reach the state's challenging academic standards by achieving high level academic skills.
To reach the state's challenging academic standards by achieving high level academic skills.
As with other special services, such as Title I, Speech, or Special Education, ESL programs are often designed as a pull out program where the students leave the classroom to meet with the ESL specialist. Although it is difficult to coordinate schedules around specials and lunch times, this type of model may allow the ESL specialist to group students across classrooms or grade levels who are at a similar level of English proficiency for ESL support. This program model is especially effective for beginning ELLs who need to develop “survival” English skills. As students advance in their English language proficiency the ESL specialist may take responsibility for teaching a specific subject area, providing background information for upcoming lessons, or reviewing difficult content. However, grouping intermediate ELLs across grade levels or even across several classrooms from the same grade level for instruction bring challenges in effectively supporting students in content area learning.
Rather than pulling students out of their grade level classroom, this program model brings the ESL specialist into classrooms. The specialist may work with students individually at their seats or as a group someplace in the classroom. The specialist may assist ELLs with the same lesson that the rest of the class is doing or modify the lesson or assignment in some way. The ESL specialist could also assist while the classroom teacher instructs the whole class by displaying pictures, keywords, or providing other aids to comprehension. In this type of model the ESL specialist can sometimes even provide an extra set of hands in a way that is useful for the entire class.
They ESL specialist may spend several hours a day in an elementary classroom when this model is implemented. As the name implies, when team teaching approaches are used the ESL specialist and grade level teacher work as a team both to plan and deliver instruction to all students in the class, the classroom teacher as the content expert, and the ESL specialist as the expert on effective strategies for ELLs. Though they could work together to teach the entire class at once or break up the class into two flexible groups, in this model all students receive the same high quality instruction. It is important that the team teaching occur in the curriculum areas in which ELLs would need the most language support. Because this model involves so much time in one classroom, it is most often used in schools with large populations of ELLs.
1. English language learners communicate for social, intercultural, and instructional purpose within the school setting.
English language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the area of language arts.
English language learners communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the area of mathematics.
English language learners communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the area of science.
English language learners communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the area of social studies.
General Teaching Strategies
Reduce anxiety; provide activities where success is likely!
Students who feel smart learn faster. Conversely, the more anxiety students experience, the less alert they are to language input. Students learn best in low-anxiety situations, where they are challenged at an appropriate level. Give students choices among activities and lots of encouragement.
ESL students will be weakest in auditory learning. Your teaching needs to provide illustrations, dramatic gestures, actions, emotions, voice variety, blackboard sketches, photo demonstrations, and hands-on materials. This type of instruction will build concept development as well as language.
Make lessons comprehensible and memorable.
Enrich your lessons with visual aids and your personality. Write key words on the board, read them aloud and define them with pictures or illustrations. These activities will help to anchor important vocabulary from oral lessons.
Let ESL students know they are included.
Make eye contact with your ESL students, mention their names during your reading or presentation, smile, wink, and occasionally stand near their desks so they know you have not forgotten them.
Create a social context for learning.
Pair or group the ESL students with other students so they are not isolated, but part of a team. Provide roles to group members designating what the ESL student can contribute.
For upper elementary and secondary students, a bilingual dictionary is a powerful tool in communication and confidence building. Students should each have a personal copy (soft cover, light weight) and carry it with them.
Tailor assignments to fit the ability of the student.
Adjust and limit the reading assignments. Provide additional visuals and hands-on activities wherever you can. Adapt, adapt, adapt content to match students’ abilities.
Tailor your oral questions to get better feedback
Questions not only give you feedback on the student’s understanding but are an excellent language teaching tool. Here is a hierarchy of questions to ask ESL students:
One-word answers are sufficient.
Do not require your ESL students to put oral answers in complete sentences. This will reduce their ability to participate. Accept one-word answers and sometimes supply the sentence in your acknowledgement.
Teacher:Where is the White House?
Student:Washeeton, nee cee
Teacher:Right! The White House is in Washington, D.C.
Allow more time to answer.
The typical time lag a teacher allows after a question in mainstream class discussion is five seconds. An ESL student may know the answer but need an allowance of 15 to 20 seconds to get through the extra thinking time required to frame the answer verbally. Allow time.
If an ESL student gives a wrong answer, acknowledge it as a good try. Change the question to an either/or choice where the students has to merely identify the answer rather than recall it.
With homework assignments, check the student’s work, and then encourage him/her to write answers on the blackboard. Students may be less threatened by writing answers rather than saying them.